Timeline of fundamental physics discoveries

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This table provides an overview of the scientific relevant discoveries which would have to be predicted in its entirety by a theory of everything, in order to claim itself as a success.

Timeline of Fundamental Physics Discoveries Before 1780
1021 intromission theory of light, Alhazen
1687 laws of motion and law of gravity, Newton
Timeline of Fundamental Physics Discoveries Since 1780
Advances in our knowledge of the laws of nature consisting either of experimental discoveries or theoretical proposals that were confirmed experimentally.
1782 Conservation of matter, Lavoisier
1785 Inverse square law for electric charges confirmed, Coulomb
1801 Wave theory of light, Young
1803 Atomic theory of matter, Dalton
1806 Kinetic energy, Young
1814 Wave theory of light, interference, Fresnel
1820 Evidence for electro-magnetic interactions, Ampere, Biot, Savart
1824 Ideal gas cycle analysis, internal combustion engine, Sadi Carnot
1827 Resistance, etc., Ohm
1838 Lines of force, fields, Faraday
1838 Earth's magnetic field, Weber
1842–3 Conservation of energy, Julius Robert Mayer, William Thomson
1842 Doppler effect, Lord Kelvin
1845 Faraday rotation (light and electromagnetic)
1847 Conservation of energy 2, Joule, von Helmholtz
1850–1 Second law of thermodynamics, Rudolf Clausius, Kelvin
1857–9 Kinetic theory, Clausius, James Clerk Maxwell
1861 Black body, Kirchhoff
1863 Entropy, Clausius
1864 A dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field, Maxwell
1867 Dynamic theory of gases, Maxwell
1871–89 Statistical mechanics, Boltzmann, Gibbs
1884 Boltzmann derives Stefan radiation law
1887 Electromagnetic waves, Hertz
1893 Wein's radiation law
1895 X-rays
1897 Electron
1900 Planck formula for radiation
1905 Special relativity, Einstein

Photoelectric effect, Einstein

Brownian motion, Einstein
1911 Equivalence Principle

Discovery of the nucleus

1913 Bohr atom
1916 General relativity, Einstein
1919 Light bending confirmed
1922 Friedmann proposes expanding universe
1923 Stern-Gerlach experiment

Matter waves


Particle nature of photons confirmed
1925–7 Quantum mechanics
1925 Stellar structure understood
1927 Big Bang proposed by Lemaitre
1928 Antimatter predicted
1929 Hubble confirms expansion of universe
1932 Antimatter confirmed
Neutron discovered
1933 Dark matter found
1937 Muon discovered
1938 Superfluidity discovered
Energy production in stars understood
1939 Uranium fission discovered
1944 Theory of magnetism in 2D Ising model
1947 Pion discovered
1948 Quantum electrodynamics
1956 Electron neutrino discovered
1956–7 Parity found violated
1957 Superconductivity explained
1959–60 Role of topology in quantum physics, predicted and confirmed
1962 SU(3) theory of strong interactions
Muon neutrino found
1963 Quarks predicted
1967 Unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions

Solar neutrino problem found

Pulsars (neutron stars) discovered
1968 Experimental evidence for quarks found
1970–3 Standard model of elementary particles invented
1971 Helium 3 superfluidity
1974 Black hole radiation predicted

Renormalization group

Charmed quark found
1975 Tau lepton found
1977 Bottom quark found
1978 Dark matter found in galaxies
1980 Quantum Hall effect
1981 Theory of cosmic inflation proposed
1982 Fractional quantum Hall effect
1985 Bose–Einstein condensate found, Bose
1995 Top quark found
1998 Dark energy discovered
2000 Tau neutrino found
2003 WMAP observations of Cosmic microwave background